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Procedure oriented programming is a programming paradigm based on the concept of procedures, also known as functions or subroutines. Procedures are defined as a set of instructions that are executed in a sequence to perform a specific task. This paradigm was one of the earliest programming paradigms developed and is still in use today, although it has largely been replaced by object-oriented programming.
In this article, we will discuss in detail about Procedure Oriented Programming, its features, advantages and disadvantages along with its use cases.
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Characteristics of Procedure Oriented Programming
Top-down approach: Procedure oriented programming follows a top-down approach, where the program is divided into small modules, each of which performs a specific task. These modules are then combined to form the complete program.
Emphasis on procedures: As the name suggests, procedure oriented programming emphasizes methods. Processes are used to break a large program into smaller, more manageable modules. These modules can be reused in different parts of the program or in different programs entirely.
Structured Programming: Procedure oriented programming follows the principles of structured programming, where the program is divided into small modules that are executed sequentially. This makes the program easier to read, understand and modify.
Linear Data Structures: Procedure oriented programming primarily uses linear data structures such as arrays, linked lists and stacks. These data structures are easy to implement and manage and are suitable for the types of problems that procedure oriented programming is designed to solve.
Procedure oriented programming facility
Easy to learn: Procedure oriented programming is relatively easy to learn and understand, especially for beginners. It follows a top-down approach, which makes it easier to break down complex problems into smaller, more manageable modules.
Modular Approach: Procedure oriented programming follows a modular approach, where the program is divided into small modules that perform specific tasks. These modules can be reused in different parts of the program or in different programs entirely, making the code more efficient and easier to maintain.
Efficient memory usage: Procedure oriented programming is suitable for problems involving linear data structures. These data structures are easy to implement and manage and they use memory efficiently.
Fast execution: Procedure-oriented programs generally execute faster than other programming paradigms such as object-oriented programming. This is because procedure-oriented programs are smaller in size and use linear data structures, which are faster to process.
Disadvantages of Procedure Oriented Programming
Limited Abstraction: Procedure oriented programming has limited ability to abstract information and behavior. This can make managing large and complex programs difficult.
Lack of reusability: Although procedure oriented programming follows a modular approach, it is not as reusable as object-oriented programming. This is because methods are tightly coupled to the program and cannot be easily reused in different programs.
Difficulty in maintenance: Procedure-oriented programs can be difficult to maintain, especially if they are large and complex. This is because methods are tightly coupled to the program and any change in one module can affect the entire program.
Lack of encapsulation: Procedure oriented programming lacks encapsulation, which is the ability to hide data and behavior from other parts of the program. This can make managing and protecting data difficult.
Use cases in procedure oriented programming
Scientific Computing: Procedure oriented programming is suitable for scientific computing applications that involve linear data structures like arrays and matrices.
Business Applications: Procedure Oriented Programming can be used to develop business applications that involve simple operations like input, output and computation.
System Programming: Procedure oriented programming can be used for system programming, such as creating device drivers, operating systems, and embedded systems.
Web Development: Procedure oriented programming can also be used for web development, especially for small and simple websites that do not require complex data management or interaction.
Legacy code: Procedure oriented programming is also used in legacy code that was written before object-oriented programming became popular. In such cases, rewriting the code in object-oriented programming may not be feasible due to time and cost constraints.
Rapid prototyping: Procedure oriented programming can be used for rapid prototyping of software, where the focus is on developing a working prototype quickly rather than long-term maintenance of code.
In conclusion, procedure oriented programming is a programming paradigm based on procedures, which are used to break a large program into smaller, more manageable modules. This paradigm follows a top-down approach and is suitable for problems involving linear data structures. It is relatively easy to learn and understand, and it is efficient in terms of memory usage and execution speed. However, it has some limitations, such as lack of abstraction, reusability, and encapsulation, which can make large and complex programs difficult to manage. Procedure oriented programming is still used today, especially in scientific computing, systems programming, and legacy code.
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